Biography - Samuel Thomas

SAMUEL THOMAS is a native of Pendleton county, South Carolina, where he was born September 13th, 1794. He is the youngest of five children of Irwin and Elizabeth Thomas. Mrs. Thomas' maiden name was Elizabeth Hubbard. Mr. Thomas died in July, 1795, leaving his infant son Samuel an orphan when not quite one year old. His forefathers, who were among the first to try their fortunes in the then wilds of the New World, came to North Carolina in the early part of the seventeenth century, and, as well as himself, always found the most congenial and natural employment in the tilling of the soil. An anecdote is told of the father of Samuel that well illustrates the natural shrewdness of his character as a trader: In his native state, on a day that was devoted to the training of the militia, he "swapped" horses often enough to have three cows and calves and the same horse he started with, at night, and it is to be remembered that that was done by simply using in trade the one horse.
After her husband's death, Mrs. Thomas labored hard in the field and garden, in order to keep her orphan children together and provide a living for them. Mrs. Thomas remained a widow about one year, when she was married to Wm. Hamilton, by whom she had five children. Mr. Hamilton was a currier and shoemaker, and in conjunction with his trade he carried on farming. He proved to be not only an excellent husband, but also a kind father to the children of Mrs. Thomas.
About the year 1802, Mr. Hamilton removed with his family to the then distant state of Kentucky, which was hardly yet free from numerous bands of marauding Indians, and the forests at that period were infested with large numbers of wild animals, who subsisted chiefly by preying on the hogs, sheep, and cattle of the settlers. After prospecting somewhat over the state, Mr. Hamilton finally located on a tract of wild land in Caldwell county, which he improved, and also followed his trades a portion of the time. THe work on the farm was done principally with one horse. The first ploughing Mr. Thomas did was on this farm, in close proximity to "Skin Frame Creek." He was then but about ten years of age, though he vividly remembers to this day, with hosnest pride, the occurrence, and the pleasure that it afforded him, when his father patted him on the head and praised him for the amount of ploughing performed. Many other incidents of kindness connected with his step-father Hamilton yet cluster around his memory, and we could see the old, honored, time-worn veteran's eyes sparkle with joyous pride when he related the following incident, which occurred when he was a small lad: One morning, his step-father, Mr. Hamilton, while sitting before the blazing fire-place, nursing one of the younger children, apparently wrapped in a deep meditation, looked up and remarked to his wife: "There are two things which, if boys and young men will not do, they will do well enough." She asked what those two things were. He andswered: "Gambling and swearing." That assertion was indelibly impressed on his mind, and he resolved, then and there, that if those were the two worst things, he could get along without doing either; and he says there is no person, should they speak the truth, who can say that they ever heard him swear, and he has yet to do the first thing that partakes of a gambling character; and he has never used tobacco in any of its forms.
In 1811, Mr. Hamilton died at his residence, and his widow was subsequently married to John Flint, by whom she had one son - Jesse Flint - now residing in Caldwell county, Missouri. Mr. Flint died in Kentucky, and in 1822 Mrs. Flint, with her son, Lewis Hamilton, came to Greene county, Illinois, where they remained about one year, and in 1823 settled in the southeastern part of Fall Creek township, Adams county, where Mrs. Flint died in 1840.
The reader will pardon this digression from the main theme under consideration, as we have thought it well to pave the way by giving a truthful narrative of the life and career of his parents, and other members of the family.
The subject of our sketch, Samuel THomas, had but meager facilities for obtaining an education. To give the reader an idea of the difficulties he had to encounter in order to gain a knowledge of the simplest rudiments of an education, we will mention that at one time, having earned seventy-five cents, with his brother John, he purchased a slate, which they owned in partnership, and, after borrowing a copy-book of his brother-in-law, Reason Regan, he learned to write; however, with his accustomed industry, he succeeded in acquiring a fair education, which has proved of good service to him in his marked and successful business career. THe only recollections Mr. Thomas still retains of his old home in South Carolina are of the church and mill, around which it was his custom to play in the earlier days of his youth.
In 1813, in company with two of his brothers-in-law (Reason Regan and Dennis Davis), and their wives and children, Mr. Thomas came to the then territory of Illinois, landing at a settlement on the forks of Wood river (which is now embraced in the limits of Madison county), in the fall of the year in which they started from their Kentucky homes. On the trip to Illinois they camped out at night, and, after removing the saddles, would picket out their horses with long lariots, allowing them to graze around the camp. They crossed the Ohio river at a place called Galconade, and they found that nearly all the cabins between that place and Turkey HIll Settlement, Illinois, had been vacated by the settlers, who were fearful of the depredations of the Indians, who were then on the war path. When he started from Kentucky, Mr. Thomas had only one dollar and six and a quarter cents. Immediately after landing at the settlement, he bought a rifle of his brother-in-law, on credit, with which to equip himself, in order that he might join the "ranger" service, as at that period he was very anxious to hunt Indains, having previously become a good hunter, while residing in Kentucky. We will here narrate the incident of the killing of his first deer, which occurred when he was but a small lad. He shouldered his rifle and started out to hunt, and had traversed through the woods and thick underbrush only a short time, when he saw, at a little distance, feeding on an adjoining hillside, a large buck. Leveling his rifle and taking good aim, he shot it through the heart. It ran about eighty yards and fell, but he, being a young and inexperienced hunter, was not certain whether it was dead or not, and, slyly creeping up on his hands and knees to within a few feet of it, he shot it in the back of the head, though the first shot had done its work. The young sportsman ran home in high glee, and told the family of his success in true boyish style. Soon after, he killed another deer, and from the hides of the two he had a pair of leather breeches made.
After coming to the settlement at Wood river, his first work of any consequence was the making of a loom for his sister, which was used to weave linsey. At that time there was but one loom in the settlement, which was known as a "sled loom." Afterwards, during intervals of his service in the Indian wars, he made twenty-five looms for the settlers, receiving ten dollars for each loom, which, at that day, was considered a good price.
In the summer of 1814, Mr. Thomas was admitted ito the service in Captain Samuel Judy's company of militia, and, after a brief campaign among the Indians, which for a short time had a tendency to keep the savages quiet, Judy's company was disbanded. In a very short time, however, more trouble arose with the Indians, and Mr. Thomas enlisted in Captain Whiteside's company of rangers, and continued in the service until a treaty was made with the Indians and peace secured. He was present and witnessed the treaty, at Portage de Sioux, Missouri, on the renowned banks of the great Father of Waters, and saw Governor Clark present a flag to each of the Indian chiefs. Some of the chiefs would not come in and treat, and Mr. Thomas remembers distinctly how Governor Clark brought them to terms by pronouncing, in his decided way, a "woe" upon every one of them that did not come in and treat. The Indians well understood the improt of his words, and many were the shudders and groans that passed around the dusky throng. War having abated for a short time in that locality, Mr. T. went, with a few others, as a guard to take a drove of four hundred cattle up to the regular troops who were stationed at what is now Warsaw, on the Mississippi river. On their return trip, they met the first party of government surveyors, who were crossing the Mississippi at the mouth of the Illinois river, to find the meridian line that intersects at a point on the Illinois river where Beardstown is now situated, and from there striking west across the country, making the base line at the Mississippi river. After that was done, the Indians got on a rampage, tore up the stakes, destroyed the corners, and acted so bad generally, that Governor Edwards found it expedient to order out a company of men for the second time, to act as guard for the surveyors, under the command of the invincible Captain Whitesides. It was with many difficulties that they succeeded in finding the base line, and after a short time the governor recalled the troops, when Mr. Thomas returned to the settlement at Wood river. While on their trip in 1816, the company twice passed over the ground where Jacksonville is now situated, and Mr. Thomas remembers that they cut four bee trees in Diamond Grove.
On the 10th of July, 1814, a massacre occurred at the settlement on Wood river, which is seldom equalled in its atrocity. It appears that, in the summer of 1814, while the gallant rangers were scouring the country, ever on the alert, the inhabitants, who, of sevearl years had huddled together in forts, had attained to such a sense of security that they returned to their farms and dwellings, with the hope of escaping further annoyance. At the forks of Wood river were some six or eight families, most of whose men were in the ranging service, thus leaving the women and children to labor for and protect themselves. Near the center of the settlement was a block house, to which the settlers resorted in case of danger, but the inconvenience and difficulty of clustering so thickly together, induced them to leave it as soon as prudence would at all permit. On the 8th of July, two days before the massacre, Mr. Thomas and his brother-in-law, Reason Regan, went to a deer lick on the west fork of Wood river, about ten miles from the settlement, and there encamped for the night. At the same time, as was afterwards ascertained, a company of eleven Indians were encamped three miles distant, and the next morning came to the camp of the two white men, whose trail, lying between the Piasa and Wood river, they followed into the settlement.
The hardy inhabitants had not forgotten, admidst their perils, the duties of social life, or the higher duties to their God, and the Sabbath shone not only upon the domestic circle, as it gathered around the fireside altar, but its hallowed light was shed on groups collected in the rustic edifice which they piety of the people had caused to be erected as a place for divine worship. On the day of the massacre, Sunday, July 10th, Reason Regan and his sister attended church about five miles distant from home, while Mrs. Reagan and her two children remained at the house of George Moore. About four o'clock in the afternoon, Mrs. Reagan started to go to her own house, accompanied by six children, two of whom were her own, two the children of Abel Moore, and two of William Moore. About the same time, or shortly afterward, two men of the neighborhood passed separately along the road, in an opposite direction to that taken by Mrs. Reagan, and one of them heard, at a little distance, a low call, as of some one speaking in a stifled tone, but he gave no answer and did not wait for a repetition of the sound. When it began to grow dark, the families became uneasy at the protracted absence of their respective members, and William Moore went over to his brother Abel's, but not finding them there, he started on towards Mr. Reagan's house, to discover, if possible, what had become of Mrs. Reagan and the children. Mr. Moore had left his brother's but a short time, when he returned with the information that some one had been dilled by the Indians - that he had discovered a human body lying on the ground, but whether it was that of a man or woman it was impossible for him to make out, without a closer inspection than he deemed it safe to bestow. About the same time, his wife started twoard the same plac,e but, taking different routes, they did not meet on the way. Mrs. Moore mounted a hourse and hastily went in the nearest direction, and on the way carefully noted every discernible object, until at length she saw a human body lying on the ground, near a burning log. There was not sufficient light for her to discover the size, sex, or condition of the body. She called the names of one and another of her children, supposing it to be one of them asleep. At length she dismounted and approached it more closely. What must have been her consternation and horror at placing her hand on the back of a naked corpse, and feeling, on further scrutiny, the raw fleash from which the scalp had but recently been torn. In the gloom of the night, she could just discern something which seemed like a little child sitting near the body - so near as to lean its head, forst on one side and then on the other, on the insensible and mangled corpse. SHe saw no further, but, thrilled with horror and alarm, remounted and hastened home; and, when she arrived, the determined and courageous woman quickly put a large kettle of water over the fire, intending to defend herself against the Indians, if need be, with scalding water, in case of an attack.
The habits of the Indians were too well known by these settlers to leave them free from apprehensions of an ambuscade still near, and the first thought that occurred to Mr. Moore, after discovering the body as related above, was to flee to the block-house. He advised his brother's family to hasten to the fort for safety, while he would pass by his own house, to take his family with him. The night was now dark, and the faint glimmer of the moon hardly caused a ray of light in the dark, heavy forest, which was only here and there opened by a clearing, while the road wound around among the tall trees, from the farm of Abel Moore to that of his brother, George. The feeling of the group as they groped their way through the dark woods may be more easily imagined than described. Sorrow for the supposed loss of relatives and children was mingled with horror at the manner of their death. Fearing for their own safety, and pained by teh dreadful idea that the remains of their dearest friends lay mangled near them, they silently moved along, until they came to the cabin of William Moore, and when they approached the door, Mr. Moore exclaimed, as if relieved of some dreadful apprehension, "Thank God, Polly is not killed." As they opened the gat, Mrs. Moore came running out, exclaiming, "They are all killed by the Indians, I expect." All hastened to the block-house, whither, by day[break, the whole settlement had repaired, to sympathize and tremble.
It is with a quivering voice that the venerable Samuel Thomas recounts these scenes of sixty years ago, in which he was a participant. It will be remembered that Mrs. Reagan, the murdered woman, was his sister. Mr. Thomas armed himself with a broadaxe, the only weapon then at hand, and spent the entire night at the fort, anxiously watching the Indians. The next morning, Mrs. Reagan and the six children were found laying at intervals along [Page 26] the road - tomahawked, scalped, and all dead, except Mrs. Reagan's youngest child, which was sitting near its mother's corpse, with a gash deep and long on each side of its little face. It lived but a short time after being found.
Almost sixty years have elapsed since that terrible tragedywas enacted, and there are but few persons now living who were residents of western Illinois at that period, and of those who were witnesses of the sad results of that awful massacre, the venerable subject of this sketch is the only one now (1872) living, and from him we have the full account of the bloody transaction. A son of William Moore (Lorenzo Moore), who removed to Texas twenty-five years ago, was killed by a roving band of Indians, a few miles west of Austin, on the 19th of May, 1872; thus leaving Mr. Thomas the last person to hehearse that sad tale.
For the second time we beg the indulgence of the reader for having digressed from the subject matter of this sketch. After his return from the Indian war, Mr. Thomas put in a crop of corn, and a short time afterward, on the 4th of June, 1816, he was married to Miss Elizabeth Isley, Rev. William Jones, of the Baptist church, officiating. Mrs. Thomas was born in Sullivan county, Tennessee, September 2d, 1796, and was the daughter of Philip and Margaretta Isley, who were natives of North Carolina. She came to Illinois with her brother-in-law, John Collum, and his wife, landing at the mouth of Wood river in July, 1815. A few days after his marriage, Mr. Thomas and his young bride moved into a cabin which he had previously erected. He lived in this cabin about two years, during which time he cleared seventeen acres of land, and then sold the cabin and grounds for one hundred dollars. Conveyances, such as wagons, were difficult to obtain in those days, and, in order to secure a plow, Mr. Thomas made a trip to St. Louis, bought the implement, and carried it home on horse-back. His brother-in-law put it together, and with that plow, in the space of five years, he broke upwards of one hundred acres of land.
After disposing of his property at Wood river, Mr. Thomas made a prospective trip to Greene county, where he entered eighty acres of land, and, in August, 1818, built a cabin thereon, which was situated within the yeard of the house where he now lives. On the 9th of November, 1818, he arrived with his family at his cabin, in this county, thus making a permanent settlement, which was the first one made in Greene county, north of Macoupin creek; and he has lived on the same spot of ground ever since.
One day, while Mrs. Thomas was alone, five stalwart Indians came to her cabin, and, after pow-wowing for some little time, motioned to her that they wanted to catch a rooster. She gave them permission, and, to hear her tell the story, was quite amusing. After considerable capering and jumping, they succeeded in catching five roosters, whose tail and wing feathers they plucked, which they put into their head-dress, and then marched proudly off for other scenes of amusement. Mrs. Thomas, like the pioneer women of her day, was not afraid to handle fire-arms; her first and last shot was the killing of a wild turkey, not far from the cabin.
When Mr. Thomas came to Greene county, he had a little over two hundred dollars in cash, but he possessed a stout heart and an energetic young wife - two very important elements of success - and, nothing daunted, he determined to make a bold strike in the then wilderness for a foothold. Being among the early settlers of the territory of Illinois, he had many hair-breadth escapes, and was called to endure, in a multiplicity of forms, all the hardships and privations incident to the lives of the first pioneers of this state. He was a man of inflexible courage, before which all hardships dwindled into insignificance; hence he could not be otherwise than successful in the various enterprises of his life. Mr. Thomas, like the other early settlers, for several years fared principally on cornbread, wild honey, and wild meats, and this mode of living, together with the wild surroundings, developed in him that hardiness, endurance, and energy which are prominent traits of his character.
When Mr. Thomas came to the settlement at Wood river, it consisted of eleven families, and among them all they did not possess a single wagon, or any vehicle of transportation, other than a sled; and when he subsequently became a citizen of Greene county, it was several years before he became the owner of a wagon - the best that he could afford was a wooden cart, which he made for himself. His first trial at breaking prairie was with an implement which, at his age of advancement in science and art, would tend to remind one of the primitive ages. It may be described as follows: A cart, about four feet high, with the felloes of the wheels about four inches square, and in the center, fastened to this vehicle, was the plow. In front he would hitch six steers abreast, and two horses in front of the center steers. Mr. THomas termed this his "bar-shear" plow."
Mr. Thomas and wife have been blessed with twelve children, of whom eleven are yet living, as follows: John I., who was a small child when his parents emigrated to their present residence, is married and settled near the old homestead, and is one of the most prosperous farmers in Greene county; Eliza J., wife of the well known and successful agriculturist, Jeduthin B. Eldred, residing south-west of Carrollton; Mary A., who was married to Wm. H. Bowlin, and after his death, married Francis Brown, both of Pike county, Illinois, is again a widow, and is residing on her farm, near Pittsfield; Nancy is the wife of Otis Haskins, of Pike county, Illinois; Elizabeth A. is the wife of John Clemons, now residing near Virden, Macoupin county; Lewis H. and Samuel R. are will known and opulent farmers and stock dealers in Montgomery county; Matilda A. is the wife of Dr. P. Clemmons, of Carrollton; William D. is residing on his farm, which is in close proximity to the old homestead; Catharine M. is the wife of John Rainey, of Carrollton; Henry D. is residing on his farm, near Virden, Montgomery county. Gila A., the only child deceased, died July 27th, 1833.
In 1839 Mr. Thomas built the large and commodious brick house in which he now resides, though their children were raised while they resided in the log cabin. THe first well which Mr. Thomas dug to furnish water for the family, was in 1827, and in the fall of 1872, while digging it eight feet deeper, there was found a set of large teeth, about two and a half inches long by one inch broad, and petrified to solid stone, which, at some anterior period of the world's history, bloonged to a species of animal now extinct. Mr. Thomas takes considerable interest in these rare relics, and often exhibits them to visitors at his home.
In politics, Mr. Thomas is a Democrat - an ardent admirer of the principles promulgated by General Jackson. His first vote for president was cast for James Monroe, and he has voted the straight democratic ticket at every subsequent presidential election. Mr. T. lived under the administration of Washington, and has witnessed with profound interest the events that have characterized the American government since then. The subject of our sketch was among those who fought against the British invasion of 1812, and receives a pension from the government for services performed in that struggle.
Mr. Thomas is a natural mechanic, and his genius exhibits itself in his every-day life. He possesses that peculiar faculty of turning his hand to almost any employment, which, in a sparsely settled or new country, makes such a man a valuable acquisition to the neighborhood in which he lives. Whether fighting Indians in the perilous times of the war of 1812, or in the quiet pursuits of domestic life, he was always the same cool adn self-possessed man. His faculties were ever active, his energies untiring - he knew no such word as "fail." Hence he was eminently qualified to cope with the events and circumstances that surrounded his earlier life. Though deprived of the advantages of an education, such as the humblest child in the land can now obtain through the medium of our free school system, yet he did not allow himself to remain in ignorance. At the early day in which his veteran pioneer lived, schools of any kind were in their most incipient state, and, at that time, to read and write, and work a few simple sums in arithmetic, was deemed quite sufficient. But to the innate elements of Mr. Thomas' mind, more than to any acquisition, is due that power which enabled him, in his long and arduous career, to successfully overcome all the impediments that were thrown in his path, and place him now (in 1872) first among the argriculturists of Greene county. His acquisitions in property were not the result of any mere chance, but the natural outgrowth of well laid and perfected plans. He early learned the value and importance of money, and the many pleasures and benefits that result from its possession. He did not, like the miser, hoard his gold, but would invest it in some property, in which there was profit and a tendency to increase in value. This is demonstrated by the fact that, as soon as he accumulated a small amount of money, he would invest it in lands, until he became a large real estate owner in Greene, Macoupin, and Montgomery counties. He is one who believes that there is wealth and an ample reward for industrious toil in the waving corn and golden harvests. The order of nature is never reversed - honest labor ever wears the victor's crown. From his earliest recollection, Mr. Thomas ever loved the beautiful scenery and pleasures of Nature, the sweeet fragrance of flowers, the beauty of green pastures, inviting goves, and sparkling water courses; and, more than this, he loves the rich, productive soil, that has made himself and children opulent. Whatever he undertakes, he does with all his might, and, with well developed order, works to successful ends. He is plain in manners, companionable in intercourse, and genial in disposition; and, from the clearness of his mind, and elasticity of his step, we hardly recognize the fact that he has lived an active life for upwards of three-quarters of a century. He is a little impetuous sometimes, but usually well guarded, and found to be nearly right in his conclusions. He is one of those men who are always looking ahead. Truthfulness and sobriety are among his shining virtues; honorable and reliable, he is a fair example of the older pioneers of the West.
Mr. Thomas has been long identified with the best interests of the country, of which he has ever been a loyal citizen, whether in the proudness of her prosperity, or in the darker and humbler hours of her adversity. He has given to the Union his quiet though earnest support, and even when the state of his nativity was in arms against the life of the government, it had no influence in swerving him from the determination of standing firm to the cause of the Union.
In person, his features are strongly marked - his whole system is characterized by strength and toughness, and is capable of great endurance and capacity for work. He is a good thinker, and an accurate observer. He is firm, self-reliant, and constant in friendship. His executive powers are large, and he is a man of unyielding perseverance. He has a large brain, and a tenacious and vigorous intellect, giving force and energy to all his faculties. His head is deep from individuality to firmness; broad between teh organs of combativeness, with a full development of the moral sentiments. He is combative, without being querulous; has economy, without parsimony; caution, without timidity; force, with kindness and consideration. In stature he is of the medium height, broad shoulders, well muscled, and of a good weight; and now, at his advanced age, he still possesses a luxuriant growth of hair, and a clear eye.
To show with what pride Mr. Thomas keeps relics of his early settlement here, we will mention the fact that the first wagon he had made in Greene county, which was teh work of Captain Richard Robley, is still in his possession. The following incident may not be uninteresting: In 1816, Mr. Thomas, with six others, went to Sangamon county, to take a look at the country, and while there they planted the first apple and peach seeds in that portion of the territory. His has been a career full of interesting incidents, and one cannot listen to the recital of the events which he has passed through, without every felling of admiration for the old hero; and, long after his venerable head shall have reposed in the grave, future generations of his children will read with avidity and interest these pages which have been written to commemorate the memory of the pioneer of Greene county. Few men, if any, have ever lived in this county who have won the respect of so large a circle of friends as the well known subject of this sketch.
For several years the old settlers of Greene county were considering the idea of holding a re-union, and the matter was frequently discussed in the papers. At last Samuel Thomas published a card in teh Carrollton Gazette, inviting all the old settlers to meet at his place on the 21st of October, 1871. In response to that call, a large concourse of people assembled, and the grounds around his mansion were covered with friends. The meeting was called to order by David Pierson, teh Carrollton banker, and Jacob Bowman was made temporary chairman; prayer was offered by Rev. C. J. Gardner. After the organization was effected, Mr. Thomas was called upon for a speech. He responded by relating many incidents of his early career. Sevearl other speakers followed. The closing address was made by General Jacob Fry, and, among other incidents which he related, was the death of a son of William Webb, in 1819, when he (the speaker) went to the woods, cut down a walnut tree, hewed slabs out of it, took them home, and dressed them down to an inch in thickness, and made a coffin for the boy, without hope of fee or reward (deeds of kindness were common among the pioneer settlers). With the exception of two other coffins, made out of clapboards, by Mr. Thomas, this was the first coffin ever made in Greene county by the whites. At noon a bounteous repast was spread in a grove, a little distance from the house, and, to add to the harmony and pleasure of the occasion, a band was present and discoursed sweet music.
Samuel Thomas is a man who possesses an abundance of practical good sense, and is strictly devoted to his business. In the employment of agriculture he finds great pleasure, and, as a stock grower and feeder, has been eminently successful. It is said that he has raised more young cattle than any other many in the county.
By his own exertions, he has won the respect and esteem of his fellow citizens, especially those who have acted with him for upwards of half a century, who know and feel his worth. To his own management and energy, more than any other cause, he owes his success. His kindness and largeness of heart are well known. A beautiful monument, with appropriate disigns, has been erected in the cemetery at Carrollton, to commemorate in part the memory of the honorable old veteran and pioneer, when he shall have departed hence.
Such is a brief narrative of the life and career of one of the oldest and most valued citizens of this county. His many virtues will endure long after his ashes shall have been consigned to the tomb.
In this sketch of Samuel THomas, it may be seen how a poor boy, possessed of firmness of purpose and good constitution and character, may rise from obscurity to be a man of wealth and influence. Well has the poet said: -
"Honor and wealth from no condition rise;
Act well your part - there all the honor lies."
Mr. Thomas is still residing at the old homestead, with the beloved partner of his younger days, both in the enjoyment of excellent health, and surrounded by all the comfort that wealth and the consciousness of well spent lives can afford.

Transcribed 04 Jan 2017 by Norma Hass from Atlas Map of Greene County Illinois, 1873, pages 23 and 26.

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